Writing Frames

Writing frames provide a language scaffold that helps support students as they write.


I think that


The reasons for my thinking this are, firstly


Another reason is



These (facts / arguments / ideas) show that


Although and are both

they are different in many ways.



They are also different in that

Another way in which they differ is




Although and

are different they are alike in some interesting ways. For example they both


They are also similar in

The is the same as

the resembles

Finally they both



Although and are both they are different in many ways.

(One) has

whilst has

They are also different in that

Another way they are unalike is



Discussions are written to present arguments and information from differing viewpoints before reaching a conclusion based on the evidence.

A discussion usually consists of:

  • a statement of the issue plus a preview of the main arguments.
  • arguments on one side plus supporting evidence.
  • arguments on the other side plus supporting evidence.
  • a recommendation as a summary and conclusion.

Discussions are usually written:

  • in the simple present tense
  • using generic human participants rather than personal pronouns (except in the thesis / conclusions)
  • using logical connectives

Discussions are often found in philosophical texts, history and social study texts, newspaper and editorials.




Some people think that


They argue that

Another group who agree with this point of view are _______ They say that

On the other hand ________ disagree with the idea that

They claim that

They also say

My opinion is




The issue we are discussing is whether

Notes listing the arguments for and against:
(remember notes are just brief outlines. They don't have to be in sentences)

Arguments for

Arguments against






My conclusion, based on the evidence, is

Now use these notes to help you write a discussion paper on this issue.



There is a lot of discussion about whether

The people who agree with this idea, such as _______, claim that

They also argue that

A further point they make is

However there are also strong arguments against this point of view. _________________ believe that

They say that


After looking at the different points of view and the evidence for them I think



I found ________ interesting for several reasons. I discovered that

I also learnt

It was interesting that


As you can see


Explanations are written to explain the processes involved in phenomena or how something words.

Explanation usually consists of:

  • a general statement to introduce the topic
  • a series of logical steps explaining how or why something occurs

Explanations are usually written:

  • in the simple present tense
  • using chronological and / or causal conjunctions
  • using mainly 'action' verbs

Explanations are often found in science, geography, history and social science textbooks.


There are differing explanations as to why (how, what, when etc.)

One explanation is that

The evidence for this is

An alternative explanation is

This explanation is based on

Of the alternative explanations I think the most likely is


I want to explain why

There are several reasons for this.
The chief reason is

Another reason is

A further reason is

So now you can see why


Instructions are written to describe how something should be done.

Instructions usually consist of:

  • a statement of what is to be achieved
  • a list of materials / equipment needed to achieve the goal.
  • a series of sequenced steps to achieve the goal

Instructions are usually written:

  • in the simple present tense or imperative tense.
  • in chronological order
  • focusing on generalized human groups rather than individuals
  • using mainly doing / action verbs

Instructions are commonly found in instruction manuals, with games, in recipe books.


Persuasive Writing

Persuasive writing is written to promote a particular point of view or argument.

A piece of persuasive writing usually consists of:

  • an opening statement (the thesis)
  • the argument (often in the form of point and elaboration)
  • a summary of the opening position (reiteration)

Persuasive text is usually written:

  • in the simple present tense
  • focusing mainly on generalized groups rather than individuals
  • using mostly logical rather than chronological conjunctions

Arguments are found in pamphlets and booklets produced by special interest groups, in political writing, in publicity and promotional material.



Although not every body would agree, I want to argue that

I have several reasons for arguing for this point of view.
My first reason is

A further reason is


Therefore, although some people argue that

I think I have shown that



I would like to persuade you that

There are several points I want to make to support my point of view.

Firstly / To begin with

These words and phrases might help you:

you can see
a supporting argument
this shows that
another piece of evidence is



How to

You will need

The stages

1. First you

2. Then you

3. Next






How to

You will need



Do a drawing or diagram of what you are explaining:

Diagram / drawing

Explain each stage:

e.g. First you... Then.... Next.... Finally...
The Stages




Recounts are written to retell events with the purpose of either informing or entertaining their audience.

Recounts usually consist of:

  • a 'scene setting' opening (orientation)
  • a recount of the events as they occurred (events)
  • a closing statement (reorientation)

Recounts are usually written:

  • in the past tense
  • in chronological order
  • focusing on particular individuals or groups
  • using action verbs

Recounts are often found in biographies, autobiographies and history texts.


Although I already knew that

I have learnt some new facts. I learnt that

I also learnt that

Another fact I learnt

However the most interesting thing I learnt was


Before I began this topic I thought that

But when I read about it I found out that

I also learnt that

Furthermore I learnt that

Finally I learnt that


Reports are written to describe the way things are.

Reports usually consist of

  • a 'scene setting' opening (orientation)
  • a description of the phenomena

Reports are usually written

  • in the present tense (unless describing an historical phenomenon)
  • non-chronoligically
  • focusing on generic groups of things
  • using 'being' and 'having' verbs

Reports are often found in science and geography text books and in encyclopedias.




To begin with



After that



Forming an opinion

Forming an opinion

We have been discussing whether

Arguments for

Arguments against

After looking at the arguments I think that

Useful phrases for explaining exploratory, hypothetical and speculative talk

What if………


Imagine if……

Why would……



Could we……..

It might be that…….

I wonder if…….

What about…….

It’s possible that…….

It’s probable that…….


Useful phrases for explaining cause and effect

The result is…..

This results in……

As a result……




The effect of this is….

As a consequence…



This, in turn, causes…..

Excellent 14 page document about writing frames click here...

Using Writing Frames in the Classroom

Select examples of writing frames to develop both fiction and non-narrative writing

To save you time and money, and to help your students - especially those who need a little more support with their writing activities - Oxford University Press has produced a series of FREE downloadable Writing Frames to accompany the Oxford Literacy Skills series. There is no need to register.

Science Prompts

Our question asked us....

we started with...

We investigated...

To begin with...

We were asked to find out...

The question or problem...


We decided to...

Then we...

We recorded our measurements...

After that...

Next we....

But afterwards...

The equipment we used...


The results suggest that...

It is obvious...

However you will notice...

First of all...

To make sure it was a fair test we...

After discussing how to record our results, we choose...

To be safe we...

Then we took measurements...

Carrying out the investigation...

We think that these results may be because

You will notice that...
Of course this shows....

The pattern suggest that...

There is a link between....

Analysing the data...


If we look at the graph...

Looking at the graph we noticed that...

The pattern on the graph showed that...

The story of our graph is...

When we looked at the graph...

The graph looks like this because...




We have found that...

We would recommend...

We think that the best...

This is what we thought would happen but...

Based on our evidence we think that...

Our results suggest that...

We concluded that...

But of course...

Conclusions and recommendations